After realizing that the Republic Period of China would not achieve the intended goal to unite China, plans were made to improve the new governmental structure. On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong announced the formal establishment of the People’s Republic of China. According to The People’s Republic of China, Mao referred to it as a people’s democratic dictatorship. Although Mao was the one to announce the new government, he was not the one in charge. However, he was the person in charge of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The head of the new government was Zhou Enlai, the premier of the State Administrative Council. With the establishment of this new government, came four social classes that the all people fall under. These classes are: the workers, the peasants, the petite bourgeoisie, and the national-capitalists.
According to The People’s Republic of China, “for the first time in decades a Chinese government was met with peace, instead of massive military opposition within its territory.” The leadership of the People’s Republic of China worked hard to reconstruct China’s economic, political, and social stability with the support of its’ people. Their policies and methods of reconstruction were effective and achieved impressive results. As time went on, China’s communist government slowly but steadily gained international recognition. The first to recognize the rising communist country was the Soviet Union which was then followed by The Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance.
In 1953, China began a transition to socialism. This transition lasted five years and is known as China’s First-Year Plan. This plan worked to achieve industrialization, collectivism of agriculture, and political centralization in China. This plan used the Soviets as a model and relied heavily on the Soviet Union for its implementation. Some of the more demanding issues in China in the early 1950’s included the lack of food for it is increasing population, domestic capital for investment, and the purchase of Soviet-supplied technology, capital equipment, and military hardware. The collectivization of agriculture was crucial for improving the issues stated previously. The government also nationalized banking, industry, and trade.
In terms of education in the People’s Republic of China, the education system is socialist-oriented. However, it is also very competitive. Students take entrance exams at the grade school level and are under a lot of pressure to excel in school. According the PBS article China’s History and Culture by Susan Han, “In China, the goal is to create productive citizens who can serve society. Thus, a child excels to benefit China, nor for his or her personal wealth”. As a result, students are often enrolled in many diverse after school activities so that they their overall development may be enhanced.
As mentioned in The People’s Republic of China, “The first modern census was taken in 1953. The population of mainland China was shown to be five hundred and eighty-three million, a figure far greater than expected”. Since then China’s population had increased greatly. Because of this large increase in population size, China has also implemented a One-Child Policy. This policy was put in place in the 1970s and as the name suggests, it attempts to reduce population growth by restricting the amount of children that a couple may have. In order to enforce this policy, any family with more than two children must pay a fine. This also means that China allows abortions, which are state-funded but do not make them mandatory. Overall, China’s new government system seems to be very successful.