Spain: Timeline

 

  • 800-550 BCE– The kingdom of Tartessus ruled the valley of the Guadalquivir, while everywhere else there was no political organization, only a couple of city-states in the coastal regions and of clans in the interior and the northwest.
  • 589 BCE – Roman Catholicism became the official religion of Spain.
  • 12th Century– Castilian, which has words of Arabic origin, the language of the kingdoms of Castile and León become the official language of the state.
  • 1492 –  Exploration, staring with Christopher Columbus for nearly 350 years, Spain conquered and settled most of South America, the Caribbean, and the American Southwest.
  • June 7, 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, an agreement between Spain and Portugal
  • 1713 – Far south, Gibraltar used to be part of Spain  until it was ceded to Great Britain in the Treaty of Utrecht at the   end of the War of the Spanish Succession.
  • 1833Local government called  provinces were originally intended as intermitters for the policies implemented by the central government. The provinces now bring together and are dependent on the governments of the 8,000 municipalities (municipal governments). They are all made up with a council, a commission (a kind of cabinet), and a mayor.  Votes are cast for parties, not for individual candidates.
  • 1844– Civil Guard maintains security in the rural areas and on the highways and controls the borders. The Ministry of the Interior created this to provide more efficiency in responding to security issues.
  • 1857Moyano Law was Spain’s public education plan.
  • 1931-36 Catholicism remained the official religion of the state until the Second Republic
  • 1936 -39The Spanish Civil War: Spain was divided between right-wing Nationalist and left-wing Republican parties.
  • 1941– National Industrial Institute (INI) was developed for defense-related industries and other industries ignored by the private sector.
  • 1945– Western democracies shunned Spain because of its fascist government. Spain did not receive Marshall Plan aid from the United States and was not part of international organizations.
  • August 1953- The Concordat was signed to replace the 1851 document that the republic had abrogated. The new agreement provided full church recognition of Franco’s government and the public practice of other religions was not permitted.
  • 1955- The UN approved Spain’s membership, and relations with U.S
  • 1960s Spain generalized the availability of government-sponsored health care
  • 1973– The oil crisis initiated an extended period of inflation and economic uncertainty in the Western world, and brought Spain’s economic growth to a halt.
  • 1975 – Spain transitioned to a democratic state by establishing a constitutional monarch, with King Juan Carlos as head of states after Francisco Franco died.
  • 1978 Constitution recognized the right of unions to exist and the right of all citizens, except those in the military, to join them.
  • 1999 – Spain qualified for the euro, the European Union’s common currency, although the Spanish peseta remained in circulation until 2002

By: Nancy Rebolledo