Formation of GCC-ACC

Abstract: 

1971- The political change from the United Arab Emirates does not stop, and thus the UAE starts to experiment diplomacy with its Arab neighbors. The UAE in 1971 joins the Arab League, which is a regional organization that helps promote military stability, economic stability and political stability to Arab nations in the Middle East.

1981- U.A.E form the Gulf Cooperation Council, which consisted of the host country of U.A.E, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman. The GCC has many roles, but it serves as a regional security organization to keep peace in the states of its members.

1989- Arab Cooperation Council is formed in response from other countries in that region being left out from the GCC. This is a vital council showing not only is the Middle East divisible, but how the Middle East is separated into states who are wealthy and non wealthy. The ACC consisted of four countries, these countries are the less wealthy countries in the Middle East, including Yemen, Egypt, Iraq, and Jordan.

Summary:

The United Arab Emirates was created the GCC in 1981 to promote political stability, economic stability and regional stability between the U.A.E and neighboring countries. The Gulf Cooperation Council consists six states: the host country United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar and Kuwait which all share many similar principles. In international politics, the GCC is considered to be a regional trade agreement or (RTA). A Regional Trade Agreement is considered to be an “agreement among three or more countries in a region to reduce barriers to trade among themselves”, as explained Interest-Institutions-Interactions of World Politics (Frieden,Lake,Schultz). Yet this is no ordinary RTA, and is at times the GCC can be seen to be as a military alliance very similar to North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The reason behind this thought, stems from the actions that the GCC took during the Arab Spring 2011, an article by Al-Monitor explains that the GCC sent troops to the country of Bahrain in order to restore stability which was being impacted by protest. (Khalaf,2013) As stability was brought back to the country of Bahrain, international scholars witness key evidence that the GCC was no regional trade agreement, but rather a hybrid mix between a RTA and a strategic alliance. In 2010, the GCC wanted to take similar steps from the European Union by creating a single currency with credibility and stable exchange rate of its own. The plan to create a single currency that represented the GCC failed when Oman vetoed out, and stuck with its dollar currency. To this day the GCC still thrives within the Persian Gulf, promoting economic, political, and regional stability within the sovereignty of its members.

The GCC sparked a controversy with the rest of the Middle East, as the GCC only represented a small percentage of the countries in the Middle East. In 1989 four countries were upset that the GCC did not offer a membership in the GCC, theses countries included: Egypt, Yemen, Jordan and Iraq. In 1989 the Arab Coalition Council was created owing to the fact these four countries, who have similar principles and ideologies to the GCC were not asked to join. ACC mains reason for creation was to build a basis of “economic cooperation and economic interaction” as clarified by a published article by The Economist (Avent,Ryan 2009). Countries in the ACC were offered a place in the GCC and none were taken in because not a single one could contribute back into the GCC. These countries in the ACC: Yemen, Iraq, Jordan, and Egypt are developing countries that cannot contribute to a level that GCC requires. The ACC was disintegrated in 1990 due to different political interests within its members and partly due to the Gulf War.

Cited Source: 

“The World of the Arabs.” The Economist. Ed. Ryan Avent. The Economist Newspaper, 25 July 2009. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.

Dokoupil, Martin. “Oman to Continue with Dollar Peg, Says Central Bank Chief.” Oman to Continue with Dollar Peg, Says Central Bank Chief. 6 Mar. 2010. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.

Al-Hadi Khalaf, Abd. “GCC Members Consider Future of Union – Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East.” GCC Members Consider Future of Union. Al-Monitor, 14 Jan. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.